Drucker, P. Indians of the Northwest Coast (McGraw-Hill, 1955).
Kroeber, A. Culture and natural areas of Native North America (University of California Press, 1939).
Introduction, S. W. In Handbook of North American Indians volume 7: Northwest Coast (ed. Suttles, W.) 1–15 (Smithsonian Institution, 1990).
Suttles, W. Coping with abundance: subsistence on the Northwest Coast. In Coast Salish Essays (ed. Suttles, W.) (Talon Books, 1987).
Barnett, H. G. The Coast Salish of British Columbia (University of Oregon Press, 1955).
Ames, K. The Northwest Coast: Complex hunter-gatherers, ecology, and social evolution. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 23, 209–229 (1994).
Carlson, R. L., Szpak, P. & Richards, M. The Pender Canal site and the beginnings of the Northwest Coast cultural system. Can. J. Archaeol. 41, 1–29 (2017).
Cannon, A. & Yang, D. Y. Early storage and sedentism on the Pacific Northwest Coast: ancient DNA analysis of salmon remains from Namu, British Columbia. Am. Antiquity 71, 123–140 (2006).
Matson, R. G. The evolution of Northwest Coast subsistence. In Research in Economic Anthropology Supplement 6: Long-Term Subsistence Change in Prehistoric North America (eds Croes, D. et al.) 366–428 (JAI Press Inc., 1992).
Caldwell, M. et al. A bird’s eye view of northern Coast Salish intertidal resource management features, southern British Columbia. J. Island Coast. Archaeol. 7, 219–233 (2012).
Caldwell, M. & Lepofsky, D. Indigenous marine resource management on the Northwest Coast of North America. Ecol. Process. 2(1), 12 (2013).
Croes, D. R. (ed.). The Qwu?gwes Archaeological Site and Fish Trap (45TN240), and Tested Homestead (45TN396), Eleven-year South Puget Sound Community College Summer Field School Investigations with the Squaxin Island Tribe—Final Report. Report on file, Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Olympia (2013).
Lepofsky, D. et al. Shellfish mariculture on the Northwest Coast of North America. Am. Antiq. 80, 236–259 (2015).
Mathews, D. L. & Turner, N. J. Ocean cultures: northwest coast ecosystems and indigenous management systems. In Conservation for the Anthropocene Ocean: Interdisciplinary Science in Support of Nature and People (eds Levin, P. S. & Poe, M. R.) 169–201 (Academic Press, 2017).
Williams, J. Clam gardens: aboriginal mariculture on Canada’s West Coast (New Star Books, 2006).
Campbell, S. & Butler, V. Archaeological evidence for resilience of Pacific Northwest salmon populations and the socioecological system over the last~7,500 years. Ecol. Soc. 15(1), 17 (2000).
Thornton, T., Deur, D. & Kitka, H. Cultivation of salmon and other marine resources on the Northwest Coast of North America. Hum. Ecol. 43, 189–199 (2015).
Thornton, T. The ideology and practice of Pacific Herring cultivation among the Tlingit and Haida. Hum. Ecol. 43, 213–223 (2015).
Petersen, J. R. et al. Use of the traditional halibut hook of the Makah Tribe, the čibu⋅d, reduces bycatch in recreational halibut fisheries. PeerJ 8, e9288 (2020).
Ritchie, M. & Angelbeck, B. “Coyote broke the dams”: Power, reciprocity, and conflict in fish weir narratives and implications for traditional and contemporary fisheries. Ethnohistory 67(2), 191–220 (2020).
Royle, T. C. A. et al. An efficient and reliable DNA-based sex identification method for archaeological Pacific salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) remains. PLoS ONE 13(3), e0193212 (2018).
Royle, T. C. A. et al. Investigating the sex-selectivity of a Middle Ontario Iroquoian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fishery through ancient DNA analysis. J. Archaeol. Sci. Rep. 31, 102301 (2020).
George, G. National Energy Board Hearing Order OH-001-2014. Trans Mountain Pipeline ULC. Trans Mountain Expansion Project. Volume 6 (2014).
Morin, J. Tsleil-Waututh Nation’s History, Culture and Aboriginal Interests in Eastern Burrard Inlet. Report on file, Gowlings, Lafleur, Henderson LLP, Vancouver (2015).
Suttles, W. Central Coast Salish. In Handbook of North American Indians Volume 7: Northwest Coast (ed. Suttles, W.) 453–475 (Smithsonian Institution, 1990).
Hancock, M. J. & Marshall, D.E. Catalogue of Salmon Streams and Spawning Escapements of Statistical Area 28 Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet. Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 557 (1986).
Harris, G. The salmon and trout streams of Vancouver. Waters J. Vanc. Aquar. 3, 4–23 (1978).
Ricker, W. E. Effects of the Fishery and of Obstacles to Migration on the Abundance of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 1522 (1987).
Charlton, A. S. The Belcarra Park Site. (Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, 1980).
Lepofsky, D., Trost, D. & Morin, J. Coast Salish interaction: a view from the inlets. Can. J. Archaeol. 31, 190–223 (2007).
Morin, J., Lepofsky, D., Ritchie, M., Porcic, M. & Edinborough, K. Assessing continuity in the ancestral territory of the Tsleil-Waututh-Coast Salish, southwest British Columbia, Canada. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 51, 77–87 (2018).
Morin, J., Muir, B., Ritchie, M. & Sellers, I. Tsleil-Waututh and Simon Fraser University Archaeological Investigations at Port Moody (Reed Point, Shoreline Park, Old Orchard Park, Slaughterhouse Creek, Carraholly Point, and Barnet Beach). Permit 2014–344. Report on file, British Columbia Archaeology Branch, Victoria (2020).
Harris, C. Voices of disaster: smallpox around the Strait of Georgia in 1782. Ethnohistory 41, 591–626 (1994).
Chisholm, B. S. Reconstructions of Prehistoric Diet in British Columbia Using Stable-Carbon Isotopic Analysis. PhD dissertation. (Simon Fraser University, 1986).
Hanson, D. K. Late Prehistoric Subsistence in the Strait of Georgia Region of the Northwest Coast. Master’s thesis. (Simon Fraser University, 1991).
Trost, T. Forgotten Waters: A Zooarchaeological Analysis of the Cove Cliff Site (DhRr 18), Indian Arm, British Columbia. Master’s thesis. (Simon Fraser University, 2005).
Pierson, N. Bridging Troubled Waters: Zooarchaeology and Marine Conservation on Burrard Inlet, Southwest British Columbia. Master’s thesis. (Simon Fraser University, 2011).
Morin, J. et al. DNA-based species identification of ancient salmonid remains provides new insight into pre-contact Coast Salish salmon fisheries in Burrard Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. J. Archaeol. Sci. Rep. 37, 102956 (2021).
Sproat, G. June 15, 1877. Copy of minute of decision, Joint Indian Reserve Commission. Signed by Dominion Commissioner Alex Anderson, Provincial Commissioner Arch. McKinley and Joint Commissioner G.M. Sproat. Federal set of JIRC’s Minutes and plans, surveyor’s copy. Aboriginal and Northern Affairs Canada, BC Regional Office Specific Claims Branch, Resource Library, Vancouver. AAND Lands and Trusts registration #15215. Also LAC, RG10, Volume 3612, File 3756-23, Reel C10106 (1877).
Mortimer, H. & George, D. You Call Me Chief: Impressions of the Life of Dan George (Doubleday, 1981).
Talbot, M. Old Legends and Customs of the British Columbia Coast Indians. s.n., New Westminster (1952).
Thornton, M. Indian Lives and Legends (Mitchell Press, 1966).
MacDonald, C., Drake, D., Doerksen, J. & Cotton, M. Between Forest and Sea: Memories of Belcarra (Belcarra Historical Group, 1998).
Romanoff, S. Fraser Lillooet Fishing. In A Complex Culture of the British Columbia Plateau, Vancouver (ed. Hayden, B.) 222–265 (University of British Columbia Press, 1992).
Kennedy, D. & Bouchard, R. Sliammon Life, Sliammon Lands (Talonbooks, 1983).
Mathisen, O. A. The effect of altered sex ratios on the spawning of red salmon. In Studies of Alaska Red Salmon (ed. Koo, T.) 137–246 (University of Washington Press, 1962).
Reed, W. J. Sex-selective harvesting of Pacific salmon: a theoretically optimal solution. Ecol. Model. 14, 261–271 (1982).
Salo, E. O. Life history of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). In Pacific Salmon Life Histories (eds Margolis Groot, C. & Margolis, L.) 231–310 (UBC Press, 1991).
Jenness, D. The Faith of a Coast Salish Indian (British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1955).
Richling, B. (ed.) The W̲SÁNEĆ and Their Neighbours: Diamond Jenness on the Coast Salish of Vancouver Island, 1935 (Rock’s Mills Press, 2016).
Dale, C. & Natcher, D. C. What is old is new again: the reintroduction of Indigenous fishing technologies in British Columbia. Local Environ. 20(11), 1309–1321 (2015).
Ritchie, M. P. & Springer, C. Harrison River Chum Fishery: The Ethnographic and Archaeological Perspective. Report on file, Sts′ailes, Agassiz (2010).
Simeone, W. E. & Valentine, E. M. Ahtna Knowledge of Long-Term Changes in Salmon runs in the Upper Copper River Drainage, Alaska (Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, 2007).
Langdon, S. J. Traditional Knowledge and Harvesting of Salmon by Huna and Hinyaa Tlingit. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Subsistence Management, Fisheries Resource Monitoring Program, 2006).
Ratner, N. C. et al. Local Knowledge, Customary Practices, and Harvest of Sockeye salmon from the Klawock and Sarkar Rivers, Prince of Wales Island, Alaska (Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, 2006)
Curtis, E. The North American Indian: being a series of volumes picturing and describing the Indians of the United States, the Dominion of Canada, and Alaska, Vol. 13 (Plimpton Press, 1924).
Kennedy, D. & Bouchard, R. Stl’atl’imx fishing. In A Complex Culture of the British Columbia Plateau (ed. Hayden, B.) 266–354 (UBC Press, 1992).
Yang, D. Y. & Watt, K. Contamination controls when preparing archaeological remains for ancient DNA analysis. J. Archaeol. Sci. 32(3), 331–336 (2005).
Speller, C. F. et al. High potential for using DNA from ancient herring bones to inform modern fisheries management and conservation. PLoS ONE 7, e51122 (2012).
Yang, D. Y., Eng, B., Waye, J. S., Dudar, J. C. & Saunders, S. R. Technical note: improved DNA extraction from ancient bones using silica-based spin columns. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 105(4), 539–543 (1998).
Yang, D. Y., Liu, L., Chen, X. & Speller, C. F. Wild or domesticated: DNA analysis of ancient water buffalo remains from North China. J. Archaeol. Sci. 35(10), 2778–2785 (2008).
Bertho, S. et al. The unusual rainbow trout sex determination gene hijacked the canonical vertebrate gonadal differentiation pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115(50), 12781–12786 (2008).
Yano, A. et al. An immune-related gene evolved into the master sex-determining gene in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Curr. Biol. 22(15), 1423–1428 (2012).
Yano, A. et al. The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids. Evol. Appl. 6(3), 486–496 (2013).
Yang, D., Cannon, A. & Sanders, S. R. DNA species identification of archaeological salmon bone from the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America. J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 619–631 (2004).
R Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2019).
Kim, K. et al. A real-time PCR-based amelogenin Y allele dropout assessment model in gender typing of degraded DNA samples. Int. J. Legal Med. 127, 55–61 (2013).
Sinding, M. et al. Sex determination of baleen whale artefacts: Implications for ancient DNA use in zooarchaeology. J. Archaeol. Sci. Rep. 10, 345–349 (2016).
Cooper, A. & Poinar, H. Ancient DNA: do it right or not at all. Science 289(5482), 1139 (2000).
McKechnie, I. Investigating the complexities of sustainable fishing at a prehistoric village on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. J. Nat. Conserv. 15(3), 208–222 (2007).
Cannon, A., Yang, D. Y. & Speller, C. Site-specific salmon fisheries on the central coast of British Columbia. In The Archaeology of North Pacific Fisheries (eds Moss, M. & Cannon, A.) 57–74 (University of Alaska Press, 2011).
McKechnie, I. & Moss, M. Meta-analysis in zooarchaeology expands perspectives on Indigenous fisheries of the Northwest Coast of North America. J. Archaeol. Sci. Rep. 8, 470–485 (2016).
Orchard, T. J. & Szpak, P. Zooarchaeological and isotopic insights into locally variable economic patterns: a case study from late Holocene southern Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. BC Stud. 187, 107–147 (2015).
Rodrigues, A. T., McKechnie, I. & Yang, D. Y. Ancient DNA analysis of indigenous rockfish use on the Pacific Coast: implications for marine conservation areas and fisheries management. PLoS ONE 13(2), e0192716 (2018).
McGregor, D. Coming full circle: Indigenous knowledge, environment, and our future. Am. Indian Q. 28(3), 385–410 (2004).
Suttles, W. Economic Life of the Coast Salish of Hario and Rosario Straits. PhD Dissertation. (University of Washington, 1951).
Caldwell, M. E. Northern Coast Salish Marine Resource Management. PhD dissertation. (University of Alberta, 2015).
Deur, D. Tending the garden, making the soil: Northwest Coast estuarine gardens as engineered environments. In Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America (eds Deur, D. & Turner, N.) (UBC Press, 2005).
Hoffmann, T. et al. Engineered feature used to enhance gardening at a 3800-year-old site on the Pacific Northwest coast. Sci. Adv. 2(12), e1601282 (2016).
Lepofsky, D. et al. Documenting pre-contact plant management on the Northwest Coast: an example of prescribed burning in the Central and Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. In Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America (eds Deur, D. & Turner, N.) 218–239 (UBC Press, 2005).
Turner, N. J., Deur, D. & Lepofsky, D. Plant management systems of British Columbia’s First Peoples. BC Stud. 179, 107–133 (2013).
Turner, N. J., Smith, R. & Jones, J. A fine line between two nations: ownership patterns for plant resources among Northwest Coast indigenous peoples. In Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America (eds Deur, D. & Turner, N. J.) 151–180 (UBC Press, 2005).
Turner, N. J. & Peacock, S. Solving the perennial paradox: ethnobotanical evidence for plant resource management on the Northwest Coast. In Keeping It Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America (eds Deur, D. & Turner, N. J.) 101–151 (UBC Press, 2005).
Limburg, K. E., Walther, Y., Hong, B., Olson, C. & Stora, J. Prehistoric versus modern Baltic Sea cod fisheries: selectivity across the millennia. Proc. R. Soc. B 275, 2659–2665 (2008).
Sanchez, G. Indigenous stewardship of marine and estuarine fisheries? Reconstructing the ancient size of Pacific herring through linear regression models. J. Archaeol. Sci. Rep. 29, 102061 (2020).
Slaney, T. L., Hyatt, K. D., Northcote, T. G. & Fielden, R. J. Status of anadromous salmon and trout in British Columbia and Yukon. Fisheries 21(10), 20–35 (1996).
Kope, R. & Wainwright, T. Trends in the status of Pacific salmon populations in Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho. N. Pac. Anadr. Fish Comm. Bull. 1, 1–12 (1998).
Gustafson, R. G. et al. Pacific salmon extinctions: Quantifying lost and remaining diversity. Conserv. Biol. 21(4), 1009–1020 (2007).
Price, M. H., English, K. K., Rosenberger, A. G., MacDuffee, M. & Reynolds, J. D. Canada’s wild salmon policy: an assessment of conservation progress in British Columbia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 74(10), 1507–1518 (2017).
Gayeski, N. J. et al. The failure of wild salmon management: need for a place-based conceptual foundation. Fisheries 43(7), 303–309 (2018).
Morales, Q. E., Lepofsky, D. & Berkes, F. Ethnobiology and fisheries: Learning from the past for the present. J. Ethnobiol. 37(3), 369–379 (2017).
Reid, A. J. et al. Two-eyed seeing: an Indigenous framework to transform fisheries research and management. Fish Fish. 00, 1–19 (2020).
Atlas, W. I. et al. Indigenous systems of management for culturally and ecologically resilient Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) fisheries. Bioscience 71(2), 1–19 (2021).